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• Confidential computing resources
CPU time, on-chain storage, network bandwidth, off-chain storage, and more resources
• Native token for confidential contracts
Phala provides a wide-ranged infrastructure including cross-chain confidential widgets, and trustless general-purpose computing platform. All these features are accessible with PHA
• Security guarantee
To be a Gatekeeper one must stake a certain amount of PHA. The stake would be fined and took if he betrayed Gatekeeper rules.
Stakeholders who owns a certain amount of PHA would be able to join Phala DAO to further participate in community governance.
• Other payments
Settlements for other services or products such as Web3 Analytics, crosschain bridges for permissionless chains.
(1) TEE COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT
TEE (Trust Execution Environment) is a special hardware component isolated from the rest of the system. With independent registers, cache and encrypted memory area, its operation is completely independent of the operating system, virtual machine monitor (VMM) , BIOS and other core components. Separate TEE has limited functionalities, but Phala combines TEE and blockchain to complement the advantages of TEE and blockchain to form a secure and efficient distributed computing cloud.
(2) FULL LIFETIME TRUSTED COMMUNICATION
We have completed the construction of the TEE network through the full-lifetime trusted communication between “TEE - Blockchain - User”. All the TEE workers are registered on the blockchain and verified by the remote attestation protocol. The built-in GRANDPA light client in the TEE secures the communication between the blockchain and the TEE. Finally, the communication between the user and the TEE is end-to-en encryped with the Diffie-Hellman algorithm.
(3) SEPARATION OF CONSENSUS AND COMPUTATION
Phala adopts a distributed computing architecture that separates computation and consensus. Thanks to the flexibility of the TEE network, Phala achieves grate scalability that is capable for confidential cloud computing.
Phala’s adopts the NPoS consensus consistent with Polkadot. The NPoS (Nominated Proof of Stake) consensus algorithm is used to elect the validator set that can make the system safer and more efficient. The Phragmén algorithm prevents any group from being over-representative or under-representative.
Phala’s computation layer adopts permissionless node registration, staking economics and random scheduling. Computation tasks are be randomly dispatched to the TEE around the world. The design of confidential contract guarantees the data availability.
(4) COMPOSABILITY OF BLOCKCHAINS AND CONTRACTS
Phala is built on Substrate. Therefore it's naturally interoperabile with Polkadot ecosystem. We plan to become a Polkadot parachain, which can serve the entire Polkadot parachain ecosystem, as well as other blockchain developers.
The highlight of Phala Network's heterogeneous architecture is that Phala confidential contracts are designed with interoperability in our mind. It's based on XCMP to achieve interoperability and composability between contract and blockchains.
(5) APPLICATIONS AND USE CASES
• Confidential DeFi and Dapps
• Cross-chain Confidentiality Layer
• Trustless Privacy Data Computation and Exchange
• Artificial Intelligence & Healthcare
• Joint Risk Control